War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War

TitleWar in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2012
Series EditorGerwarth, Robert, and John Horne
Number of Pages240
PublisherOxford University Press

The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted down to 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had somefeatures of formal military organizations, but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different contexts. It was an important aspect of the violence unleashed by class revolution in Russia. It structured the counter-revolution in central and Eastern Europe, including Finland and Italy, which reacted against a mythic version of Bolshevik classviolence in the name of order and authority. It also shaped the struggles over borders and ethnicity in the new states that replaced the multi-national empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitaryviolence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. War in Peace explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time. It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace. It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-termcontext and to explain its enduring impact. [UNC Libraries]

Full Text

1. Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War: An Introduction (Robert Gerwarth and John Horne) (p. 1)

Part I. Revolution and Counter-Revolution

2. Paramilitary Violence in Russia's Civil Wars, 1918-1920 (William G. Rosenberg) (p. 21)

3. Bolshevism as Fantasy: Fear of Revolution and Counter-Revolutionary Violence, 1917-1923 (Robert Gerwarth and John Home) (p. 40)

4. Fighting the Red Beast: Counter-Revolutionary Violence in the Defeated States of Central Europe (Robert Gerwarth) (p. 52)

5. Revolution, Civil War, and Terror in Finland in 1918 (Pertti Haapala and Marko Tikka) (p. 72)

6. Paramilitary Violence in Italy: The Rationale of Fascism and the Origins of Totalitarianism (Emilio Gentile) (p. 85)

Part II. Nations, Borderlands and Ethnic Violence

7. Bands of Nation Builders? Insurgency and Ideology in the Ukrainian Civil War (Serhy Yekelchyk) (p. 107)

8. Turning Citizens into Soldiers: Baltic Paramilitary Movements after the Great War (Tomas Balkelis) (p. 126)

9. The Origins, Attributes and Legacies of Paramilitary Violence in the Balkans (John Paul Newman) (p. 145)

10. Paramilitary Violence in the Collapsing Ottoman Empire (Ugur Ümit Üngör) (p. 164)

11. Soldiers to Civilians, Civilians to Soldiers: Poland and Ireland after the First World War (Julia Eichenberg) (p. 184)

12. The British Culture of Paramilitary Violence in the Irish War of Independence (Anne Dolan) (p. 200)

13. Defending Victory: Paramilitary Politics in France, 1918-1926. A Counter-example (John Horne) (p. 216)

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