Vectors of Violence: Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War, 1917–1923

TitleVectors of Violence: Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War, 1917–1923
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsGerwarth, Robert, and John Horne
JournalJournal of Modern History
Date Published09/2011

The Journal article  discusses the violence that continued everywhere in Europe after the official cessation of hostilities on the western front on November 11, 1918, which the authors argue was more the exception rather than the rule. The First World War had finished a year earlier on the eastern front, as the Bolsheviks extricated Russia from the conflict. Yet despite this, violence continued in Eastern Europe and Russia with the Russian Civil War that continued until 1922 and spread to the Central powers as they were defeated in the fall of 1918. Ethnic strife, pogroms, revolutions, counterrevolutions, wars of independence, civil conflict, invasions, and interstate wars went on until 1923. One or more of these kinds of violence affected Russia, the Ukraine, Finland, the Baltic states, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Anatolia, and the Caucasus. Ireland experienced a war of independence and civil war in the same period.

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