Northern Europe

Preston, Paul, and Ann L. Mackenzie. The Republic besieged : Civil War in Spain 1936-1939. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1996.
Hann, Willem de. "Violence as an Essentially Contested Concept." In Violence in Europe: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Sophie Body-Gendrot and Pieter Spierenburg, 27-42. New York: Springer, 2008.
Passmore, Kevin. Women, gender, and fascism in Europe, 1919-45. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Manchester University Press, 2003.

Chapters:
Italy / Perry Willson
Germany / Kirsten Heinsohn
Romania / Maria Bucur
Hungary / Mária M. Kovács
Serbia, Croatia and Yugoslavia / Carol S. Lilly and Melissa Bokovoy
Serbia / Carol S. Lilly
Croatia / Melissa Bokovoy
Latvia / Mara I. Lazda
Poland / Dobrochna Kałwa
France / Cheryl Koos and Daniella Sarnoff
Spain / Mary Vincent
Britain / Martin Durham
Europe / Kevin Passmore.

Madsen, Ole Christian. Flame and Citron. Finland: Sandrew Metronome, 2008.

the filmmakers conducted eight years of archival research

Bergman, Ingmar. Shame. Sweden: Lopert Pictures Corporation, 1968.
Kinnuen, Tiina. "Gender and Politics: Patriotic Women in Finnish Public Memory." In The Gender of Memory: Cultures of Remembrance in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century-Europe, edited by Sylvia Schraut and Sylvia Paletschek, 181-203. Frankfurt/M: Campus, 2008.
Maerz, Susanne. "From Taboo to Compensation: Krigsbarn in Public Discourse and Literature after 1945." In From Patriotic Memory to a Universalistic Narrative? Shifts in Norwegian Memory Culture after 1945 in Comparative Perspective, edited by Odd-Bjøn Fure Arnd Bauerkämper, Østein Hetland and Robert Zimmerman, 253-271. Essen: Klartext, 2014.

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