Search Websites by Keywords

The keyword search in the collection of websites allows users to look for websites on the subject of gender, military and war that provide access to Online collections of primary sources, educational resources and Online encyclopedia. The collection primarily includes websites provided by public institutions like archives, bibliographies, foundations, libraries, museums, research institutions or universities. The focus of the collection is on the wars of the twentieth century, especially the First and Second World War, because for them much more websites are available. Most of the included websites are in English, French or German.

Users can search for these websites by using one or a combination of two and more, keyword for their search. They can search for major wars, time periods, regions or countries. In addition, a thematic keyword search is possible, which is based on a selection of broad terms defined by the editors of the Oxford Handbook of Gender, War and the Western World since 1600 edited by Karen Hagemann, Stefan Dudink, and Sonya O. Rose (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2020). They represent some of its central themes and questions. For information on the various keywords and tags associated with the Bibliography, Filmography and Webography, go to About the Search Options.

Search Results

Title Institution Abstract Type of Source
"An Meine Völker!" / "To My Peoples!" Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria-Hungary

If there is one document that can be regarded as the “foundation deed” for the First World War, it is the Imperial Manifesto “To My Peoples!” of 28 July 1914. This announcement was printed in countless variations throughout the Empire, often in various scripts, but also in versions as ornaments with decorative frames. Above all, it was announced in the nine official national languages – German, Czech, Polish, Ukrainian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Romanian, Italian – in the Austrian half of the Empire. [Google]

Government Documents
"Trench Papers" (Feldzeitungen) from the 1st World War – online Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

The first "trench papers" developed mostly on the initiative of soldiers without official control. They started as self-written poetry, jokes and satires, written on slips of paper which were simply hung up somewhere. A little later, duplicated papers appeared in small batches, which, at just a few pennies, found a ready market. The papers provided a diversion from the often monotonous everyday life at the front and were at the same time a forum for the worries and needs of the simple soldiers; longing for home, shortage of supplies and unfair treatment by superiors. With the introduction of the Feldpressestelle (Field Press Office) in the spring of 1916, the army command obtained complete access to the field papers. They heavily censored the publications and produced their own articles for printing. Because the ordinary soldiers had few sources to get a clear picture of the political circumstances and the situation at home, these army newspapers provided an ideal...

Primary Source Collection
100 Milestone Documents National Archives and Records Administration

Created by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), this website provides students, teachers and the general public with access to foundational documents of American history. Periods include major wars from the American Revolution to the Cold War and Beyond. Documents are arranged chronologically in a browseable form, and can be read as a digitized image of the original and as transcribed text.

Primary Source Collection
17th-19th Century British Religious, Political, and Legal Tracts University of Missouri

A collection of pamphlets touching on a range of social, economic, political, medial, legal, religious, and other affairs, this archive of British tracts covers more than 20,000 entries across the entire three-century period. It includes a searchable database and page images viewable within the browser. Hosted by the University of Missouri since the 1940s, the collection is founded on the collection of 17,000 pamphlets collected by the Philadelphian bookseller Ralph Howey, but has grown since then to include other donations and acquisitions. Others include petitions, treatises aimed at influencing the British government, including related to issues of war, politics, and society.

Primary Source Collection
1914–1918-Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War Bayerische Staatsbiblothek

The International Encyclopedia of the First World War is a full-scale English-language reference for WWI. International and collaborative, the site strives to offer multiple perspectives by combining the efforts of over 1,000 authors, editors, and partner institutions from 50 countries. Seeking to offer an all-encompassing vision of the war, the site offers materials about not only the major belligerent powers of Europe, but  those actions taking place all over the globe, including within neutral countries. Each article is extensively linked to other articles, providing users with the power to navigate for themselves through non-narrative and non-linear paths. 

30 Maps to Explore the Holocaust Holocaust Memorial Museum

The Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies and collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived racial and biological inferiority: Sinti and Roma, people with disabilities, some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others), Soviet prisoners of war, and blacks. Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals. This website by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum provides 30 maps of different aspects on the Holocaust and the camp system of...

37 Maps that Explain the American Civil War Matthew Yglesias

These thirty-seven maps with explaining comments, provided by two senior correspondents working for the online newspaper Vox explain the Civil War — why it started, how the Union won, and what the aftermath of this conflict was.

A Chronology of the Algerian War of Independence Christopher Hitchens

Former contributing editor to The Atlantic and Vanity Fair columnist, Christopher Hitchens compiled this useful chronology of the key events of the Algerian War for The Atlantic’s November 2006 edition. It gives readers a brief, but thorough overview of the conflict, along with explanations accompanying each event.

A Vision of Britain Through Time Great Britain Historical GIS Project

Based in the Department of Geography at the University of Portsmouth (UK), the website A Vision of Britain through Time combines data from historical surveys of the island. Created by the Great Britain Historical GIS Project, the project has received support from the Office of National Statistics, the National Archives, the British Library, English Heritage, the Environment Agency and many academic institutions. In addition to the GIS analyses presented, the site gives users access to collections of individual sets of historical maps, including a broad range related to the military and the War Office.

Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives Digital Library James Fernandez

The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives (ALBA) is an educational non-profit dedicated to promoting social activism and the defense of human rights. ALBA’s work is inspired by the American volunteers of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade who fought fascism in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). Drawing on the ALBA collections in New York University’s Tamiment Library, the items in the ALBA Digital Library represent four collections that are historically significant and are comprised of letters and other correspondence that reveal the human experience during the Spanish Civil War.

Primary Source Collection
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation

The Lincoln Presidential Library is a research library which houses books, papers and artifacts related to Lincoln's life and the American Civil War. In addition to the works associated with Lincoln and his era, the library houses the collection of the Illinois State Historical Library (founded by the state in 1889) and serves as a premier repository of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials of historical interest pertaining to the history of the state of Illinois.

Primary Source Collection
Adhesive Propaganda: Stamps of the Spanish Civil War University of California, San Diego Libraries

Rather commonplace in modern usage, stamps served a number of purposes well before the twentieth century. Aside from their use by postal services to indicate the payment of postage fees, stamps have been used for tax collection, food rationing, publicity, and other purposes. Often printed in color and with a wide variety of styles, designs, and artwork, these small forms of media were utilized extensively during the Spanish Civil War. The Republicans made use of stamps during the war to serve all of the purposes listed above. Stamps included in this collection shed light on life in Spain during the Civil War. The wide variety of publishers they represent and the causes they support characterize the marketplace of ideas that dominated life during the Spanish Civil War. Among other things, they highlight the relative strengths of the various levels of government during the war and the competing crowd of political parties, unions, and aid initiatives active during the war.

Primary Source Collection
African Union: Resources African Union

With its origins in the Organization of African Unity, founded in 1963, the African Union has developed since 1999 into an organization designed to facilitate cooperation on the "multifaceted social, economic and political problems compounded as they are by certain negative aspects of globalisation." The website offers users access to official materials, news, and events related to a range of themes, including Peace & Security and Women, Gender & Development. A collection of official foundational documents is available to browse, and site content is fully searchable. In addition to its full English–language edition, the site also features French and Arabic versions.

Primary Source Collection
ALEX: Historische Rechts- und Gesetzestexte Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

Created by the Austrian National Library, this Digital Reading Room for law allows users to search, browse, and read historical legal texts. Searches are only available by publication, year, and law number, but not full-text. Results are displayed as images, and all sources and site resources are in German with no English translation.

Primary Source Collection
Alexander Hamilton: The Man Who Made Modern America 'New York Historical Society and Gilder Lehrman Collection'

In the unpublished documents section, the New York Historical Society is making available previously unpublished manuscript documents by, to, or about Alexander Hamilton (1756–1804), American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. The documents from the collections of the New York Historical Society and the holdings of the Gilder Lehrman Collection, including The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, edited by Harold C. Syrett (New York, Columbia University Press, 1961–87), and The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton: Documents and Commentary, edited by Julius Goebel, Jr. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964–81), are also available through this database.

Primary Source Collection
Algeria Maps 'Maps of the World'

This online collection of maps of Algeria published by Maps of the World provides a good overview of the geography of Algeria today. It also includes a brief overview of Algeria’s history, helping students position the country within its larger global context, both for contemporary studies as well as the country’s twentieth-century conflict.

Algeria profile: Timeline BBC News

The BBC News published this timeline of key events in the Algerian War in April 2019 as part of its series of country profiles. The timeline comes with a brief explanation of each event in relation to corresponding developments in the conflict.

American Archives: Documents of the American Revolution Kulikoff, Allan

Beginning in 1837, the printer Peter Force, who also served as mayor of Washington, D.C., from 1836-1840, devoted sixteen years to collecting thousands of pamphlets, booklets, and newspaper articles pertaining to the “Origin, Settlement, and Progress of the Colonies in North America” from the Revolutionary Era. He published them in a set of nine large volumes that he called the American Archives. By the late twentieth century, Force's collection of materials from the years 1774–76 had become a valuable scholarly resource, as it contained the only surviving copies of many important documents. In 2001, Northern Illinois University Libraries and Professor Allan Kulikoff of the University of Georgia received grant funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities to support the digitization of the American Archives and their presentation in a free-use World Wide Web site. This site allows its users to use sophisticated search and indexing software to explore Force's volumes....

Primary Source Collection
Annenberg Learner Annenberg Learner

Multimedia resources for K-12 classroom instruction and teacher professional development. As part of its mission to advance excellent teaching in American schools, Annenberg Learner funds and distributes educational video programs – with coordinated online and print materials – for the professional development of K-12 teachers. Many programs are also intended for students in the classroom and viewers at home, with videos that exemplify excellent teaching.

Primary Source Collection
ANNO - AustriaN Newspapers Online Austrian National Library

ANNO is the digital newspaper and magazine reading room of the Austrian National Library. Here you can leaf through, search for and read online in historical Austrian newspapers and magazines.

Primary Source Collection
Arab Image Foundation Arab Image Foundation

Established in Beirut in 1997, the Arab Image Foundation is a non-profit organization that has acquired and preserved some 600,000 photographs from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab diaspora. This site offers users access to the results of an ongoing effort to digitize these collections funded by the Violet Jabara Charitable Trust, the Arab Fund for Arts and Culture and the Ford Foundation. The collections can be searched and browsed, and include a number of distinct collections related to particular subjects, events, photographers, or countries of origin.

Primary Source Collection
Arab Institute for Human Rights Arab Institute for Human Rights

The Arab Institute for Human Rights is an independent Arab non-governmental organization based in Tunisia. It was founded in 1989 at the initiative of the Arab Organization for Human Rights, the Arab Lawyers' Union, and the Tunisian League for Human Rights, with the support of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights. The institute promotes those human rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international conventions. Its website offers users publications, databases, training materials, educational resources, and more. The site's English version is fully functional and searchable.

Primary Source Collection
Art of African Exploration Smithsonian Libraries

Created by the Smithsonian Institution, this online exhibit presents primary sources documenting Westerners' earliest travels in Africa, including maps, landscape drawings, sketches of plant life, descriptions of peoples and individuals, printed publications, and other materials. The project aims to document how Europeans filled in the interior spaces of the continent, which had hitherto been empty spaces on their maps. It provides users with an understanding of how European travelers combined the desire for conquest or profit, missionary fervor, a thirst for adventure, and scientific curiosity, proving themselves adventurers, scientists, humanitarians, and opportunists, all advancing the processes of imperialism even as they expanded knowledge. The site presents users with a curated collection of images and texts organized around themes of knowledge, science, exploration, and wildlife, all of which are tagged with identifying information and are viewable in enlarged formats.

Primary Source Collection
Art of the First World War Mémorial de Caen

Created by the Mémorial de Caen and supported by UNESCO, this digital exhibition was created in 1998 to honor the 80th anniversary of the Armistice of November 11, 1918. Containing 110 paintings representing a range of styles and schools collected from museums across Europe, the exhibition contains an informational apparatus about the artists and their work created by by art historian and exhibition curator Philippe Dagen. Users can browse the various thematically organized collections on total war, the battlefield, suffering, and death, as well as by a section organized by artist. The website features full English, French, and German versions.

Primary Source Collection
Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica

The Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica (ARMH, Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory) is a Spanish organization that collects oral and written testimonies about the White Terror of Francisco Franco and excavates and identifies their bodies that were often dumped in mass graves. The ARMH arose as a result of the exhumation of a mass grave containing the remains of 13 civilian Republicans murdered by a group of Falangist gunmen in October 1936. As a result of the strong media coverage of the exhumation, hundreds of letters, calls and e-mails reached those responsible for the work. Given the volume of cases of extrajudicial killings and disappearances coming from all over the country and always with the same pattern: kidnapping-murder-disappearance, it was decided to create a civil association to channel all these cases and try to answer questions that the Spanish state has never given. The result is the largest archive of stories of missing...

Primary Source Collection
Atria: Institute on Gender Equality and Women's History Institute on Gender Equality and Women's History

Located in Amsterdam, Atria is a historical research institute dedicated to questions of women's history and equality. In addition to thematic collections of primary sources and scholarly essays on a range of topics related to sexuality, gender, politics, feminism, politics and more, the site also offers a dictionary/thesaurus of terms. Although the site's base language is Dutch, it has an extensive English–language version.

Primary Source Collection
Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy Lillian Goldman Law Library

A collection of digitized documents on American law, history, politics, and related topics, the Avalon Project was created by the  Lillian Goldman Law Library at Yale University. The collection also includes a small selection of documents dating to prior to 1500 that have some relevance to the subjects. Documents include clear bibliographic information, and are linked via a circumscribed number of categories, including race, slavery, law, and more. 

Primary Source Collection
Bassi-Veratti Collection Stanford University

Created by Stanford University Libraries, the Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio (Bologna) and the Istituto per i Beni Artistici, Culturali e Naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna, the Bassi-Veratti Collection provides users with digital access to the archive of the influential scientists Laura Bassi (1711–1778), as well as her husband, Guiseppe Veratti (m. 1738). Accessed via a dedicated finding aid, digitized materials (which are drawn only from the Bassi Veratti Collection in the Archiginnasio) include detailed descriptions of the documents: manuscripts, correspondence, accounting materials, legal documents, poems, wills, memoirs, petitions, and related items. Entries are accompanied by brief descriptions in modern Italian and in English, but documents are accessed as images of the originals.

Primary Source Collection
Battlefield Vietnam: Timeline PBS

This timeline of the Vietnam War is provided by Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) as part of its Battlefield: Vietnam series. Along with this informative timeline, PBS also provides other resources for more information about the Vietnam War.