Webography on the Post-Cold War Period

This webography provides a list of online primary sources, educational resources and online encyclopedias associated with some of the major conflicts during the relevant period. The most important wars included for this period are:

The most important wars for this period include:

  • Wars in former Yugoslavia (1991–99)
  • U.S. Wars in the Middle East (1990–)
  • Wars of Globalization
  • UN Peacekeeping / New Humanitarianism

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Institution: African Union
Abstract:

With its origins in the Organization of African Unity, founded in 1963, the African Union has developed since 1999 into an organization designed to facilitate cooperation on the "multifaceted social, economic and political problems compounded as they are by certain negative aspects of globalisation." The website offers users access to official materials, news, and events related to a range of themes, including Peace & Security and Women,...

http://www.au.int/en/
Institution: Arab Image Foundation
Abstract:

Established in Beirut in 1997, the Arab Image Foundation is a non-profit organization that has acquired and preserved some 600,000 photographs from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab diaspora. This site offers users access to the results of an ongoing effort to digitize these collections funded by the Violet Jabara Charitable Trust, the Arab Fund for Arts and Culture and the Ford Foundation. The collections can be searched and browsed...

http://arabimagefoundation.com
Institution: Arab Institute for Human Rights
Abstract:

The Arab Institute for Human Rights is an independent Arab non-governmental organization based in Tunisia. It was founded in 1989 at the initiative of the Arab Organization for Human Rights, the Arab Lawyers' Union, and the Tunisian League for Human Rights, with the support of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights. The institute promotes those human rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international...

http://www.aihr-iadh.net/index.php?lang=en
Institution: Yale Law School
Abstract:

A collection of digitized documents on American law, history, politics, and related topics, the Avalon Project was created by the  Lillian Goldman Law Library at Yale University. The collection also includes a small selection of documents dating to prior to 1500 that have some relevance to the subjects. Documents include clear bibliographic information, and are linked via a circumscribed number of categories, including race, slavery, law, and...

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/
Institution: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University Library
Abstract:

Established at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, the Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project aims to document women's service in the military and related services—including the Red Cross and other civilian organizations—beginning with World War I. The digital collections include a wide range of primary source material, including photographs, letters, diaries, scrapbooks, oral histories, as well as physical artifacts...

http://libcdm1.uncg.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/WVHP/
Institution: Canadian Museum of History
Abstract:

The Canadian War Museum's online exhibits feature modules on Canada's involvement in major wars from 1812 and the Boer War to both World Wars, as well as the country's membership in NATO. Each exhibit features photos and objects with text descriptions, as well as essays on subjects ranging from life on the front lines to the home front. The site also features a full-scale French–language version.

http://www.warmuseum.ca/exhibitions/online-exhibitions/
Institution: Center for Systemic Peace
Abstract:

The Center for Systemic Peace (CSP) promotes research on and quantitative analysis of political violence around the world. As such, it provides visitors to this site with databases, case lists, and analysis on a range of inter-state wars, civil conflicts, coups, and mass violence dating from the mid-twentieth century to the recent past. All materials are in English.

http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html
Institution: Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research
Abstract:

The Conflict Barometer 2014-2019  provided by the Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research includes annual reports on global conflict and their analyis, internactive maps and statistics.

https://hiik.de/konfliktbarometer/
Institution: 'Federation of American Scientists'
Abstract:

Under the jurisdiction of the Libary of Congress, the Congressional Research Service conducts research for and provides analysis to Congress on a range of policy issue. Many of these reports are confidential, but the CRS does not publicize even those that are not. This independent site, created by the Federation of American Scientists, provides access to as much of this material as is possible as a public service. The site includes thematic...

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html
Institution: Crimes of War
Abstract:

Created through the cooperation of journalists, lawyers and scholars, the Crimes of War Education Project is an awareness-raising campaign designed to highlight the laws of war as defined in international humanitarian law and their application. The target audience is one of journalists, policymakers and the general public. The site itself offers lists of thematic essays on key events, treaties, crimes, terms, and other keywords, as well as...

http://www.crimesofwar.org/
Institution: Ball State University
Abstract:

Hosted by Ball State University (Muncie, IN), the Digital Media Repository (DMR) Military History Resources digital archive is dedicated to providing access to materials related to armed conflicts ranging from the French Revolution and US Civil War to the World Wars and Cold War–era conflicts. Resources include oral histories, films, photos, manuscripts, and other materials drawn both from the library in Muncie, Indiana, as well as...

http://www.bsu.edu/libraries/archives/DMR_MilitaryHistory/
Institution: Digital Public Library of America
Abstract:

Funded by Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as well as the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Digital Public Library of America has developed from ideas that have been percolating since the 1990s. The site launched in 2013, and aims to link collections of museums, libraries, and other repositories across the United States to make them available to teachers, students,...

https://dp.la/
Institution: US Department of Defense
Abstract:

The Department of Defense's premier imagery website, the location to find all kinds of photos from across the entire DOD enterprise.

https://www.defense.gov/observe/
Institution: US Department of Defense
Abstract:

The Department of Defense's premier video collection website, the location to find all kinds of videos from across the entire DOD enterprise.

https://www.defense.gov/Watch/Video/
Institution: Princeton School of Public and International Affairs
Abstract:

The Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) supports research on insurgency, civil war, and other politically motivated violence, worldwide. ESOC identifies and compiles a wide range of micro-level data to empower scholarship and to help address pressing security threats. Beyond supporting research, the project is committed to enabling policy responses to challenges related to political violence, ranging from civil war to economic...

http://esoc.princeton.edu/
Institution: European Union
Abstract:

An official site created by the European Union, the database provides access to all international treaties and agreements concluded by the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC), as well as the former European Communities (EC, EEC, ECSC), but does not include the founding treaties of the EC/EU or  agreements concluded between the member states. All materials are searchable and browseable, and all pages are in English.

http://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/default.home.do
Institution: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
Abstract:

This evaluation report is a complementary report by United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) to the evaluation of the UN Peacekeeping Activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo carried out in 2011-12 by the Inspection and Evaluation Division (IED) of the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS). It provides an in-depth analysis of gender mainstreaming results in the Peacekeeping Mission...

http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2013/10/evaluation-of-gender-mainstreaming-in-monusco
Institution: United Nations. Office of Internal Oversight Services
Abstract:

Since 2003, the United Nations has developed and implemented a three-pronged strategy of prevention, enforcement and remedial action to address sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) by military, police and civilian personnel of peacekeeping missions. This evaluation assessed the results achieved in the enforcement and remedial assistance prongs of the above-mentioned strategy. Despite an overall downward trend since 2009, SEA allegations...

https://oios.un.org/file/7601/download?token=381aXDyU
Institution: Federation of American Scientists
Abstract:

This website offers access to analysis by experts affiliated with the Federation of American Scientists in various ways on a range of issues. Reports include issue briefs, deeper technical analyses, opinion pieces, and articles in the organization's quarterly journal. Reports are both text searchable and browseable by document type and, within that, issue analyzed.

http://fas.org/publications/
Institution: Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Department of State
Abstract:

The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity. Increasingly, the volumes are available as downloadable ebooks. Foreign Relations volumes are ordered chronologically and thematically, and are full text searchable. They contain documents from presidential libraries, Departments of State and Defense, National...

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments
Institution: Strickland, Richard
Abstract:

This paper is the product of a review of literature on issues of gender in the context of conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. It was prepared as background material for an international workshop on gender equity and peace building jointly convened by ICRW and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Key findings and research questions are presented in relation to the effective integration of gender concerns into policies...

https://www.icrw.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Gender-Equity-and-Peacebuilding-From-Rhetoric-to-Reality.pdf
Institution: United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women
Abstract:

Gender mainstreaming was established as a major global strategy for the promotion of gender equality in the Beijing Platform for Action from the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. Mainstreaming works to situate gender equality issues at the center of analyses and policy decisions, medium-term plans, programme budgets, and institutional structures and processes. This publication discusses new findings regarding...

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/pdf/e65237.pdf
Institution: Kigali Genocide Memorial
Abstract:

Created by a nongovernmental organization, the Genocide Archive of Rwanda is a large database of materials about the 1994 genocide against the country's Tutsi population. The digital collections include more than 8,000 photographs, videos, and archives documenting events before, during, and after the genocide, including reconciliation and recovery efforts. The collections are both browseable and searchable and include collections of first-...

http://www.genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php?title=COLLECTIONS
Institution: Yale University
Abstract:

The Genocide Studies Program at Yale University's MacMillan Center concentrates on interdisciplinary, comparative, and policy-oriented research into genocide and provides training to those in regions affected by modern genocides. Its historical research concentrates on the Holocaust, the genocides in Bosnia and Darfur, and on colonial and indigenous genocides. Resources available on the website include audio and video, bibliographies,...

http://gsp.yale.edu/resources
Institution: National Archives and Records Administration
Abstract:

The official site of the George H. W. Bush Presidential Library provides visitors with access to a range of public and declassified records on a range of issues, including national security policy. These include groups of policy documents, directives, and other forms of record, as well as thematic collections on important issues including the Gulf War (1990–91) and relations with the People's Republic of China. 

https://bush41library.tamu.edu
Institution: National Archives and Records Administration
Abstract:

The website of the George W. Bush Presidential Library offers research resources related to his administration (2001–2009), including links to digital collections of materials, thematic collections related to key events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, finding aids, publically available papers, speeches, and other materials on a full range of issues, including the subsequent US–led invasion of Iraq, as well as a guide to...

https://www.georgewbushlibrary.smu.edu/en/Research.aspx
Institution: Human Rights Watch
Abstract:

This website offers users access to reports and other information created by Human Rights Watch, a respected global nongovernmental organization concentrating on a range of human rights issues. The archive of reports dates back to 1982, with extensive coverage of issues, conflicts and problems since 1991. They include, among many others, issues of torture, detention and armed conflict, but also discrimination based on sex, gender identity and...

https://www.hrw.org/publications
Institution: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
Abstract:

Part of a broader UN examination of gender mainstreaming, this page provides clarity on the related concepts of gender and equality.

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/conceptsandefinitions.htm
Institution: Ulster University
Abstract:

Created by the International Conflict Research Institute at Ulster University, this website offers an archive of peace agreements and related documentation on conflicts, with a special emphasis on long-term, low-intensity ethnic or national conflicts with a particular emphasis on the 1980s and 1990s. Documents are divided by geographic region, country, and conflict, and most are available in English versions.

http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/services/cds/agreements/
Institution: OmniAtlas
Abstract:

Omniatlas is a free historical atlas which shows step-by-step historical maps covering major world and regional events. On this site you can discover free maps, articles, and timelines for education, reference, and teacher resources.

OmniAtlas provides interactive timelines with accompanying maps portraying World War I. The timelines and maps show the main events of the conflict on a global scale...

https://omniatlas.com/tags/world-war-i/?page=1
Institution: International Atomic Energy Agency
Abstract:

This site contains an archive of publications by the International Atomic Energy Agency dating back to 1958. These scientific and technical publications include international safety standards, technical guides, conference proceedings and scientific reports, as well as the general interest IAEA Bulletin, factsheets and topical booklets. All materials and site pages are available in English.

https://www.iaea.org/publications/magazines/bulletin
Institution: International Center for Transitional Justice
Abstract:

The website of the International Center for Transitional Justice offers access to the international nonprofit organization's publications on efforts to address the effects of human-rights violations or other forms of state-sponsered violence by building civic trust. The reports reflect the range of the center's activities, which involve institutions and civil society groups attempting to further processes of truth, accountability, and redress...

https://www.ictj.org/publications
Institution: International Committee of the Red Cross
Abstract:

This site provides access to reports on issues arranged thematically and geographically, all prepared by the International Committee of the Red Cross, which concentrates on providing aid to those suffering from, among other crises, armed conflicts. These include archived materials, a digital library, databases, annual reports, and other materials dating back through the twentieth century. The archives are of special potential interest, as...

https://www.icrc.org/en/resource-centre
Institution: International Crisis Group
Abstract:

An independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation committed to preventing and resolving deadly conflict, the International Crisis Group had created this website to provide access to reports, briefings, newsletters, and press accounts of conflicts ongoing. Thematic sections include those on humanitarian and refugee crises, women and gender, peace and reconciliation, and jihadist movements. The materials can be browsed by region and...

http://www.crisisgroup.org/
Institution: Library of Congress
Abstract:

Created by the Library of Congress, this website offers users and researchers an archive of webpages related to the 2003 US–led invasion of Iraq. Encompassing US and foreign government websites, as well as public policy organizations and advocacy groups' materials, the archive includes captures from March 2003 and June 2003. Additional captures from 2004 through 2009 are not available for search at this time. The collection materials are...

https://www.loc.gov/collections/iraq-war-2003-web-archive/about-this-collection/
Institution: University of Michigan
Abstract:

Created by the University of Michigan Library, the Joseph A. Labadie Collection offers users access to digitized images of twentieth-century political posters from a range of countries. Containing over 2,000 images, the collection contains visual materials on a range of social movements and causes, including anti-colonialism, communism, environmentalism, labor, pacifism, socialism, women, gender, and student movements. Collections are...

http://quod.lib.umich.edu/l/lbc2ic?page=index
Institution: La Repubblica
Abstract:

Hosted by the Italian newspaper itself, this site offers a searchable full-text archive of the newspaper, a center-left daily with its origins in the post–1968 Italian left, dating back to 1984. Site and materials are in Italian only.

http://ricerca.repubblica.it/ricerca/repubblica
Institution: Lawyers for Human Rights
Abstract:

This website offers users access to reports by Lawyers for Human Rights, a non-governmental, non-profit organization that advocates for human and socio-economic rights, particularly in southern Africa. Based in Johannesburg, the organization partners with civil society and government organizations to pursue change. Fully in English, the site offers thematic collections of materials related ongoing campaigns which include problems of...

http://www.lhr.org.za/publications
Institution: Gates, Gary
Abstract:

This research brief uses new data from the American Community Survey and the General Social Survey to provide updated estimates of how many lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGB) are serving in the US military. It also updates estimates of the cost of the US military’s “Don’t Ask/Don’t Tell” (DADT) policy.

https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0gn4t6t3
Institution: Jones, Adam
Abstract:

This paper on male-on-male sexual violence in wartime was presented at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), in New Orleans, LA, 23-27 March 2002 and published online by the authors. It explores the near-total inattention to the male victim of sexual violence. The authors try to explain it with reference to a broad panoply of actors, with distinct but converging interests. They argue that we need to understand...

http://adamjones.freeservers.com/malerape.htm
Institution: United States Institute of Peace
Abstract:

Created by the United States Institute of Peace, this digital library offers users access to a collection of documents related to peace agreements and truth conditions. Named in honor of Margarita S. Studemeister for her work on a digital library to strengthen worldwide access to resources concerning the prevention, management and resolution of international conflict, the site also includes oral histories with US personnel in conflict areas,...

http://www.usip.org/library/truth.html
Institution: National Archives
Abstract:

Presented by the United States National Archives, the Digital Vaults site offers the ability to access more than 1,200 photos, documents, films and other sources. Records include iconic pictures and important documents relating to, among other issues, the range of US military conflicts, as well as the roles of women in society. The collection is searchable, divided into various collections, and accessible through a visual interface that...

http://www.digitalvaults.org
Institution: George Washington University
Abstract:

Founded in 1985 by journalists and scholars to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive combines a unique range of functions: investigative journalism center, research institute on international affairs, library and archive of declassified U.S. documents ("the world's largest nongovernmental collection" according to the Los Angeles Times), leading non-profit user of the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, public interest...

http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/
Institution: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Abstract:

NIOD’s archives and collections about war, the Second World War in the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, the Holocaust and other genocides in the 20th and 21st century are accessible for all interested parties.

https://www.niod.nl/en
Institution: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Abstract:

This official site of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization offers users access to a broad range of official policy documents, helpful references, and other materials. Of particular interest to those interested in the Cold War, its digital archive offers users access to the policy documents, committee reports, analysis reports, and related documents organized primarily according to the...

http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/publications.htm
Institution: United Nations Peacekeeping
Abstract:

Provides statistics about UN Peacekeeping operations worldwide from the beginning. Data are updated regularly, but the site also provides access to more extensive reports and other documentation. 

https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/past-peacekeeping-operations
Institution: Physicians for Human Rights
Abstract:

This website, created by Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), provides users with access to materials of the international nongovernmental organization, which seeks to investigate and document human-rights abuses, particularly by providing specialist expertise. It also seeks to aid persecuted or threatened health workers, prevent torture, document mass atrocities, and hold accountable those who committ torture and sexual violence, attack on...

http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/?referrer=http://library.stanford.edu/africa-south-sahara/browse-topic/health
Institution: Princeton University
Abstract:

Composed of materials drawn from the Princeton University Libraries, the Digital Library features thematic collections on a range of historical events and eras, including the civil war in Guatemala, the Chinese Revolution, the American Revolution, and more. Showcasing distinctive holdings of the library, the collections have been fashioned to serve the needs of research and teaching at Princeton. Materials include sheet music, photographs,...

http://pudl.princeton.edu/collections.php
Institution: International Committee of the Red Cross
Abstract:

A database of international humanitarian law treaties provided by the International Committee of the Red Cross, this site provides users access to full texts of the treaties, as well as commentaries and other materials. All materials are sorted into thematic collections. Highlights include full texts of the Geneva Conventions, as well as contemporary and modern commentary. All materials are available in English.

https://www.icrc.org/en/war-and-law/treaties-customary-law
Institution: United Nations
Abstract:

A UN database providing close to 800 documents that can be understood broadly as peace agreements and related material. Users can access the full texts of the agreements in different languages and can use different search criteria, including searching by a number of different thematic issues.

http://peacemaker.un.org/
Institution: United Nations
Abstract:

UN Women is the global champion for gender equality, working to develop and uphold standards and create an environment in which every woman and girl can exercise her human rights and live up to her full potential. It is trusted partners for advocates and decision-makers from all walks of life, and a leader in the effort to achieve gender equality. The websites  includes a...

https://www.unwomen.org/en/
Institution: United Nations
Abstract:

An official site of the United Nations, this database of materials relates to the organization's core missions to address challenges such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance and food production. Materials are keyword and title searchable in the range of UN official languages: English, as well as French, Chinese,...

https://www.un.org/en/sections/general/documents/
Institution: United Nations
Abstract:

This online database provides the most detailed information on the status of over 560 major multilateral instruments deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, a number that continues to grow. They cover a range of subject matter such as Human Rights, Disarmament, Commodities, Refugees, the Environment and the Law of the Sea. This database reflects the status of these instruments, as Member States sign, ratify, accede or...

https://treaties.un.org/Pages/Home.aspx?clang=_en
Institution: American Folklife Center
Abstract:

Created by the Library of Congress and the American Folklife Center, the Veterans History Project is an initiative to collect, store, and offer access to individual American veterans' accounts of their wartime experiences. Users can search interviews by name, service location, unit, rank, interviewer, keywords and notes. Searches can be limited according to branch, gender, type of material, and war, ranging from World War I to the Iraq and...

http://www.loc.gov/vets/vets-home.html
Institution: National Archives and Records Administration
Abstract:

The website of the Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock, AR, offers a clearinghouse of resources related to his administration (1993–2001), including links to finding aids, digital collections from the national archives, publically available papers, speeches, and other materials on a full range of issues, as well as a guide to requesting declassification of information through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) process. Relevant...

https://www.clintonlibrary.gov/research/
Institution: Library of Congress
Abstract:

A project of the US Library of Congress, the World Digital Library provides free access to manuscripts, rare books, maps, photographs, and other important cultural documents from all countries and cultures, in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. Search 14,228 items about 193 countries between 8000 BCE and 2000 CE. It is carried out with the support of the United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific...

https://www.wdl.org/en/
Institution: US Holocaust Museum
Abstract:

The World Memory Project is changing lives by building the world’s largest online resource for information about victims of the Holocaust and Nazi regime. Millions of documents containing details about victims of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution during World War II still exist today. Through the World Memory Project, you can help make these victims' records searchable online and restore the identities of people the Nazis tried to erase from...

https://www.ushmm.org/online/world-memory-project/