Cultural Confrontations: German Turnen, Swedish Gymnastics and English Sport—European Diversity in Physical Activities from a Historical Perspective

TitleCultural Confrontations: German Turnen, Swedish Gymnastics and English Sport—European Diversity in Physical Activities from a Historical Perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsPfister, Gertrud
JournalCulture, Sport, Society
Volume6
Issue1
Pagination61-91
Date Published03/2003
Abstract

Focusing on the second half of the nineteenth century, this paper examines the development of and changes in movement cultures and how these were influenced by the general conditions prevailing in a particular society at a particular time. Due to mutual influences of society and physical culture, differing concepts of physical exercise developed in the different countries of Europe. In Germany, in the second half of the nineteenth century, there was enormous rivalry between German Turnen, Swedish gymnastics and modern sport. This article analyzes the arguments and strategy used by the adherents of each of these forms of physical exercise and examines the background, the effects as well as the sportification of physical culture.

URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14610980312331271489
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